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The United Empire of Earth Judiciary System

UEE law is inspired by the American system and the Roman Empire, American law being in force during the War of Independence. The United States being a Federal State, there is on the one hand an American federal law, the highest jurisdiction of which is the Supreme Court of the UEE, and on the other hand a particular right to each Federated Planet. The person in charge of justice in the firm is the Attorney General. Under the supremacy clause (Article VI of the Imperial Constitution), federal law takes precedence over the law of the United Federal Planets. Thus, in the event of contradiction, the Imperial Constitution takes precedence over the Federal Constitutions of the particular Planets of each Planet as well as the Federal laws, and the treaties signed by the UEE. Every six years, a federal code is drafted, listing all permanent federal laws.



Sources of Law


There are four formal sources of UEE law: the UEE Imperial Constitution, laws, case law (i.e. formulated by judges) and ordinances and regulations. Custom remains a source of informal law (mandatory practice, reasonable in sufficient time of repetition).



Judicial System
 

In addition to the federal judicial system, headed by the Supreme Court of the UEE, each United Planet has its own judicial system. The federal courts in each United Planet are the local federal courts, which include appointed judges and prosecutors, who can only lose their place through a dismissal procedure. The judges of 39 United Planets Federated are elected, as are the prosecutors (local attorney).



United Planetary Law
 

The Code of Federal Regulations includes all administrative regulations issued by the federal government departments of the EEU and by independent agencies.



Criminal Law
 

UEE criminal law has become increasingly repressive, particularly since the Messer years and then under Messer III, when the slogan be tough on the criminal dog triumphs, as well as the "war on drugs", then, in the 2685s, the "broken glass theory" and the "zero tolerance policy" (popularized in New York). In 2875, the Terra solar system adopted the Three-strikes law (or more precisely Three-strikes and you're out, i. e. "Three shots and you're out"), introducing a penalty by merit points. These laws have been generalized in the UEE. At the same time, the negotiation of sentences has become widespread, increasing the power of the prosecutor to negotiate guilt, and therefore sentence and merit points. This procedure is now used in 90% of criminal cases, making the long jury procedure, which had to decide unanimously, very rare. The incarceration rate, which was already high, is rising from 485,000 million in 2722 to nearly 775,000 million in 2812, then two 878,000 million in 2949. In the 2935s.

 

In June 2812, it had about 775,000 million prisoners, or about 1.7% of the population. In 2950, 25% of the prisoners in the UEE were prisoners for drug trafficking or consumption. Miranda rights, formalized by the Supreme Court of the UEE, are probably the most well known provisions of UEE law, including the right to remain silent in the event of arrest. The protection afforded by a lawyer during Advocacy's interrogations was recently undermined by the Advocacy Prime Act decision, which reversed a precedent of 2789. A restraining order to the UEEis a court order to take action that requires a person to stop harming or staying away from another person. The order is sometimes referred to as a protection order. The modalities vary according to the United Planets. The laws that govern the restraining order define the nature of the protection available to the victim, the assistance that can be provided and the terms of enforcement.



Legal Aid
 

Legal aid is mainly provided by private associations or legal clinics, composed of law students. If part of it is institutionalized, through the Legal Services Corporation Empire Planatary Uni, it is not insured in all the planets and would only be able to satisfy 15% of the estimated needs.



Advocacy
 

In addition to the Advocacy, the police of the UEE, each United Palisades has its own Local Advocacy. Specialized Local Advocacy also exists. Cases of Advocacy blunders remain numerous.

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